Hybridization of Orbitals

If you're not a newbie in chemistry then I guess you already know that when two or more chemical substances are involved in a chemical reaction to form products, most times there is sharing of electrons amongst the reactants to form molecules.

This sharing of electrons that occur in chemical reactions leads to arrangement of electrons in a particular orientation in molecules. In order to understand how atoms are arranged and bonded to each other in molecules, you need to understand the concept of Hybridization as it deals with the arrangements of atoms in molecules.

This article seeks to enlighten you on the concept of Hybridization in chemistry and the types of Hybridization you can find in chemistry.

What is Hybridization?

When atoms of different molecules come together to form a molecule, they share electrons amongst each other through bonding causing some interaction between the orbitals of the atoms present in the molecule. This interaction of orbitals in molecules is called Hybridization and it dictates the arrangement of atoms in the molecule. As a scientist or student of chemistry, hybridization gives you an insight towards understanding the geometries of molecules.

Types of Hybridization

As stated earlier, hybridization is the interaction of orbitals in a molecule. Hybridization can be categorised based on how many orbitals are involved as well as the types of orbitals involved in the Hybridization. Basically the following are some of the common types of Hybridization in chemistry.

sp Hybridization: this type of Hybridization occurs when an S orbital and a P orbital joins to form two SP orbitals. It is present in molecules of BeH₂ and C₂H₂.

sp² Hybridization: when two P orbitals join with an S Orbital, the product of the interaction is three SP² orbitals. It is present in molecules of CH₃⁻ or C₂H₄.

sp³ Hybridization: SP³ hybridization occurs when an S Orbital interacts with three P orbitals to form four sp³ orbitals. This type of Hybridization is present in molecules of CH₄.

 Other basic classifications of hybridization still exist which include the d orbitals and they can be found in molecules that have  broader octet structures.

How Hybridization has been applied in the real world

The concept of Hybridization in chemistry enjoys a large number of Applications that have transcended beyond the analysis of molecular geometry which it is commonly used for. Some of the other applications of this groundbreaking concept includes but not limited to the following;

Manufacturing of drugs: With the knowledge gained from the concept of Hybridization, new and more efficient drugs have been produced as it helps to analyse the Properties of chemicals and drugs being produced with high accuracy.

Studies and researches in Organic Chemistry: The concept of Hybridization has aided researches and studies dedicated towards Organic Chemistry as it facilitates the analysis of the geometry and stability of different organic compounds.

Material production : the concept of Hybridization has aided the design and production of valuable industrial materials such as polyester, plastics and semiconductors.

Nanotechnology: The concept of  Hybridization has aided the development and advancement of Nano Technology as it provides insights needed in the fabrication of nano tech products and devices.


Some scientists have claimed that the principles guiding the concept of Hybridization have led to a major breakthrough in Science and Technology citing the fact that has enabled the deep study of the molecular structures of Chemical compounds.

It has indeed no doubt led to more discoveries in chemistry as it threw more light on the chemical bonding in molecules as well as the interaction between orbitals of atoms found in a molecule.  This article has provided you with great insights on hybridization which will be an available tool in your "tool box" as you flow with the tides of chemistry.

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